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Aim: This study so to determine the factors associated with development of fatty liver disease in obese individuals with periodontitis.
Study Design: Hospital based cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana, from March, 2017 to February 2018.
Methodology: Eighty-seven (87) (29 males and 58 females) clinically diagnosed periodontal disease (PD) patients who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were recruited. A self-designed semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each consented participant for socio-demographic characteristics. Oral hygiene data including dental visits, tooth extraction. Periodontal disease was diagnosed using Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE) by a qualified Restorative Dental surgeon. Blood samples were also collected for selected biochemical measurements.
Results: The prevalence of FLD in this study population is 37.9%. Higher age (RR = 8.4; 95% CI = 1.93-36.62; p = 0.005 for 31-40 years. and RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 1.41-21.30; p = 0.014 for > 40 years), being a female (RR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.0-6.91; p = 0.035) and severity of periodontal disease (RR = 5.95; 95% CI = 2.17-16.35; p = 0.001 for moderate periodontal state and RR = 7.00; 95% CI = 1.14-42.97; p = 0.036 for advanced periodontal state) significantly increased the risk of developing FLD among the study population. Also, hypertensives were 4 times more likely to develop FLD (RR = 4.24; 95% CI = 1.53-11.75; p = 0.006).
Conclusion: The risk factors for FLD among obese subjects with periodontal disease are age group (31 -40) years, being female, hypertension and severity of periodontal disease. This is important in the primary prevention and control of FLD among these subjects.
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