A Study on the Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Activity of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Gingival Crevicular Fluid

Main Article Content

Tanusha Sharma
Charu Agrawal
Hiral Parikh
Shilpa Duseja
Chintan Agrawal


Background: Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is an important source of biomarkers. These properties is useful in monitoring the effectiveness of orthodontic treatment. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) is a soluble enzyme that is normally confined to the cytoplasm of cells, but is released to the extra cellular environment upon cell death. The activity levels of AST in the gingival crevicular fluid are considered to be important in regulating alveolar bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the activity of AST in GCF in the tissue response during orthodontic tooth movement in order to assess whether this enzyme has potential as possible diagnostic aid of the periodontal metabolic changes during orthodontic tooth movement.

Materials and Methods: Total 5 male and 5 female patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were included in study. The GCF was collected from mesial and distal gingival margins of canine at intervals 1st, 7th, 21th day after force application.  Plaque index gingival index and probing depth scores for individual patients is obtained at different time interval. AST activity will be assessed for each subject during this interval.

Results: AST activity values in both mesial and distal sites increased significantly after 21 days compared to baseline. The increase of AST activity was greater at the distal sites (compression sites) than at the mesial sites (tension sites). Local host response toward the orthodontic forces might lead to an increase in AST activity levels.

Conclusion: Thus, it was concluded that within the limitations of the study, GCF AST activity can be considered as a biomarker of the periodontal metabolic changes during orthodontic tooth movement.

Orthodontic tooth movement, aspartate aminotransferase, gingival crevicular fluid.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sharma, T., Agrawal, C., Parikh, H., Duseja, S., & Agrawal, C. (2020). A Study on the Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Activity of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Gingival Crevicular Fluid. International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, 3(3), 1-7. Retrieved from https://journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30118
Original Research Article


1. Ganowicz E. Salivary diagnostics – diseases of the oral cavity. Dent Med Probl. 2011;48(3):421-30.
2. Miller CS, Foley JD, Bailey AL. et al. Current developments in salivary diagnostics. Biomark Med. 2010;4:171-89.
3. Bostanci N, İlgenli T, Emingil G et al. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of RANKL and OPG in periodontal diseases: implications of their relative ratio. J Clin Periodontol. 2007;34:370-6.
4. Gilowski L, Wiench R, Płocica I, et al. Płyn dziąsłowy – czym jest i co umożliwia? Czas Stomatol. 2007;3:171-8.
5. Davidovitch Z. Cell biology associated with orthodontic tooth movement. In: Berkovitz BJM, Newman HN, editors. The Periodontal Ligament in Health and Disease. 2nd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Science Health; 1995.
6. Hill PA. Bone remodelling. Br J Orthod. 1998;25(2):101-7.
7. Sandy JR, Farndale RW, Meikle MC. Recent advances in understanding mechanically induced bone remodeling and their relevance to orthodontic theory and practice. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993;103(3):212-22.
8. Persson GR, Page RC. Diagnostic characteristics of crevicular fluid aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels associated with periodontal disease activity. J Clin Periodontol. 1992;19:43-8.
9. Shimada K, Mizuno T, Ohshio K, Kamaga M, Murai S, Ito K. Analysis of aspartate aminotransferase in gingival crevicular fluid assessed by using Pocket Watch TM: A longitudinal study with initial therapy. J Clin Periodontol. 2000;27:819-23.
10. Chambers DA, Crawford JM, Mukherjee S, Cohen RL: Aspartate aminotransferase increases in crevicular fluid during experimental periodontitis in beagle dogs. J Periodontol. 1984;55(9):526- 530.
11. McCulloch CA: Host enzymes in gingival crevicular fluid as diagnostic indicators of periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 1994; 21(7):497-506.
12. Persson GR, De Rouen TA, Page RC: Relationship between gingival crevicular fluid levels of aspartate aminotransferase and active tissue destruction in treated chronic periodontitis patients. J Periodontal Res. 1990;25(2):81-87.
13. Lamster IB. Evaluation of the host response in crevicular fluid, saliva, and blood: Implications and applications for the diagnosis of periodontal disease. Periodontal Case Rep. 1990;12(2):6-9.
14. Magnusson I, Persson RG, Page RC, DeRouen TA, Crawford JM, Cohen RL, Chambers DA, Alves ME, Clark WB: A multi-center clinical trial of a new chairside test in distinguishing between diseased and healthy periodontal sites. II. Association between site type and test outcome before and after therapy. J Periodontol. 1996;67(6):589-596.
15. Wise GE, King GJ. Mechanisms of tooth eruption and orthodontic tooth movement. J Dent Res. 2008;87:414-34.
16. Davidovitch Z, Nicolay OF, Ngan PW, Shanfeld JL. Neurotransmitters, cytokines, and the control of alveolar bone remodeling in orthodontics. Dent Clin North Am. 1988;32:411-35.
17. Uematsu S, Mogi M, Deguchi T. Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor and beta 2- microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement. J Dent Res 1996;75:562-7.
18. Cappabianca S, Ciavarella D, Monsurro A, Silvestrini-Biavati A, Perillo L. Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance. Scientific World Journal. 2013;105873.
19. Insoft M, King GJ, Keeling SD. The measurement of acid and alkaline phosphatase in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1996;109(3):287-296.
20. Perinetti G, Paolantonio M, D'Attilio M, D'Archivio D, Dolci M, Femminella B, Festa F, Spoto G: Aspartate aminotransferase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment. A controlled short-term longitudinal study. J Periodontol 2003;74(2):145-152.
21. Devinder Preet Singh, Litesh Singla, Aastha Sobti. The Effect Of Orthodontic Tooth Movement On Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity In Gingival Crevicular Fluid - An In-Vivo Study, Indian Journal of Dental Sciences. 2013;2(5).
22. Keeling SD, King GJ, Mc Coy EA, Valdez M. Serum and alveolar bone phosphatase changes reflect bone turnover during orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1993;103(4):320- 326.