International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJRRD/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Dentistry’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry) (International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 12:33:43 +0000 OJS 60 Non Surgical Management of Large Periapical Lesion with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and 4 Years Follow up after Unintentional Extrusion of MTA in Periapical Area: A Case Report <p>The immature root (open apex) with a necrotic pulp and apical pathosis presents multiple challenges to successful treatment and is difficult to treat with conventional root canal therapy. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) has been successfully used in treatment of open apex. Extrusion of MTA through an open apex is not a commonly seen during the apexification procedure. Here we report the management of a case of a non-vital maxillary incisor with immature root. In this case despite of the use of an apical matrix, accidental extrusion of MTA occurred in the periapical region which did not show any negative effect on healing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abhilasha Gadkar, Aniket U. Vaidya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on the Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Activity of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Gingival Crevicular Fluid <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is an important source of biomarkers. These properties is useful in monitoring the effectiveness of orthodontic treatment. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) is a soluble enzyme that is normally confined to the cytoplasm of cells, but is released to the extra cellular environment upon cell death. The activity levels of AST in the gingival crevicular fluid are considered to be important in regulating alveolar bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the study is to evaluate the activity of AST in GCF in the tissue response during orthodontic tooth movement in order to assess whether this enzyme has potential as possible diagnostic aid of the periodontal metabolic changes during orthodontic tooth movement.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Total 5 male and 5 female patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were included in study. The GCF was collected from mesial and distal gingival margins of canine at intervals 1<sup>st</sup>, 7<sup>th</sup>, 21<sup>th</sup> day after force application.&nbsp; Plaque index gingival index and probing depth scores for individual patients is obtained at different time interval. AST activity will be assessed for each subject during this interval.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> AST activity values in both mesial and distal sites increased significantly after 21 days compared to baseline. The increase of AST activity was greater at the distal sites (compression sites) than at the mesial sites (tension sites). Local host response toward the orthodontic forces might lead to an increase in AST activity levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Thus, it was concluded that within the limitations of the study, GCF AST activity can be considered as a biomarker of the periodontal metabolic changes during orthodontic tooth movement.</p> Tanusha Sharma, Charu Agrawal, Hiral Parikh, Shilpa Duseja, Chintan Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Activity of Euclea divinorum Hern (Ebenaceae) Leaves, Tender Stems, Root Bark and an Herbal Toothpaste Formulated from Its Ethanolic Root Bark Extract <p><strong>Aim:</strong><em> Euclea</em> <em>divinorum</em> Hern (Ebenaceae) is a treasured East African medicinal plant which has a long use in the management of dental caries. However, there are few reports on the antimicrobial activity of its different parts used in oral care. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of organic extracts of <em>E. divinorum</em> leaves, tender stems and root bark against some oral pathogens and formulate an herbal toothpaste from its most active extract.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study:</strong> Leaves, tender stems and root bark of <em>E. divinorum</em> were collected from Elgueyo Marakwet Rift Valley located in the North Rift region of Kenya. The samples were analyzed at Moi University Chemistry Laboratory, Kenya between January 2020 and April 2020.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Shade-dried samples were ground into powder and successively extracted with hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts were determined by agar disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration assay was performed for microorganisms that exhibited the highest sensitivity to ethanolic root bark extract (which had the highest recorded zone of inhibition diameters). The ethanolic root bark extract was used for the formulation of an herbal toothpaste.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The ethanolic extract of <em>E. divinorum </em>root bark was found to be the most active with minimum inhibitory concentration of 25, 50, 25 and 25 µg/ml for <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>,<em> Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Candida albicans.</em> Herbal toothpaste formulated with the ethanol extract of <em>E. divinorum</em> root bark had higher antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms compared to Colgate herbal toothpaste formulated with fluoride as the active ingredient.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The current study supports the use of this plant in traditional management of dental caries and as chewing sticks in Kenya.</p> Immaculate Mbabazi, Phanice Wangila, Isaac O. K’Owino ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000