Open Access Case Report

Diode Laser Assisted Excision of Gingival Hyperplasia: A Clinical Report

Shabnam Jahan, Shivi Khattri, Himani Sharma, Mayur Kaushik, Shama Praveen

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 1-4

Gingival enlargement is a feature of gingival disease. It can occur because of the various etiological factors. Once the etiology of the gingival enlargement is understood, the treatment plan can be made. Classical methods for excising the gingiva include the use of scalpel & electrocautery. Alternatively, other advanced technologies like the usage of lasers have made enormous progress in the field of dentistry used for various soft tissue surgeries. The application of diode laser in oral surgery has been attributed to the fact that it is safe for pigmentation and vascular lesions. The diode laser is one of the systems in which photons are generated via electric current with various wavelengths in continuous and pulsed mode. Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm used as a possible modality for oral soft tissue surgical procedures. Laser application has various advantages as they provide a bloodless surgical field with excellent haemostasis, minimal swelling and soft tissue scarring. In the present case report, diode laser was used for excision of gingival overgrowth.

Open Access Case Study

Cheek Plumper: A Unique Way to Enhance Facial Aesthetics

Varsharani M. Dhakne, Premraj Jadhav, Milind Limaye

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 1-4

Masseter and buccinators are the major muscles of the cheek & the major function of these muscles is chewing of foods. In younger age, these muscles are supported by teeth.  In old age, this support is lost due to loss of teeth & there is a loss of tonicity of the facial musculature leading to the sunken & slumped cheeks & gives the unaesthetic appearance.

Incomplete denture, this unaesthetic appearance is improved by attaching cheek plumper to the distobuccal flange area that gives support to cheek muscles & improves aesthetics.

In literature, they have used magnet & various customized attachments but they have disadvantages. This clinical report describes the press button attachment to attach cheek plumper to denture &it gives support for sunken cheeks.

Open Access Case Study

Non Surgical Management of Large Cyst like Lesion Using Triple Antibiotic Paste

Bonny Paul, Kavita Dube, Charu Kapur, Abishek Sharma, Abilash Shankaran

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 1-5

Large periapical lesions in anterior teeth are usually associated with trauma. Bacteria, their toxins, immunologic agents, tissue debris and products of tissue necrosis from the pulp get in touch with the periapical area through various foramina of the root canals resulting to inflammatory and immunologic reactions. Calcium Hydroxide was the usual intra canal medicament of choice. However, due to no improvement with Calcium Hydroxide treatment, the medicament was changed to triple antibiotic paste. This case report describes successful non surgical management of a large cyst like lesion using triple antibiotic paste consisting of Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin and Minocycline. Care should be taken for the patients, who are sensitive to chemicals or antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Differential Oral Cell-specific Responses to the E-cigarette Component Nicotine

Ian Pearson, James Luke Taylor, Karl Kingsley

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 1-10

Objectives: The recent introduction of electronic cigarettes (EC) or e-cigarettes, also known as the electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD), has been promoted as a safer alternative to tobacco products and smoking. Many groups have advocated for the use of ECs or ENDDs as a tool to reduce carcinogenic potential, while simultaneously promoting strategies and protocols for smoking and nicotine cessation. Based upon this information, the main objective of this study was to determine the biological effects of the most basic aerosol component of all ECs and ENDDs (nicotine) on cells and tissues specifically derived from the oral cavity. The working hypothesis was that no discernable effects would be apparent at the concentrations typically associated with EC and ENDD use.

Experimental Methods: In brief, oral cell lines were obtained, which included normal, non-cancerous Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGF-1) and two oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC25, CAL27). Cells were exposed to nicotine at concentrations equivalent to those found in e-cigarette mixtures (5.77 x 10-5 M) for five day proliferation and viability assays.

Results: The results of this study strongly suggest that nicotine may have negative effects on both cellular viability and cellular proliferation among cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Moreover, these effects appear to become more pronounced over time, suggesting that short-term exposure to vaping solutions comprised of water with small amounts of nicotine may be sufficient to induce these effects – at least in this experimental or in vitro setting.

Conclusions: In summary, these data provide further evidence that nicotine administration may present significant risks to cell viability and growth over time. In addition, this study demonstrated that these effects were evident in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells – a finding that may suggest more research in this area is needed to determine the mechanisms that might be shared between these differing cell types, which may also suggest more caution may be needed when advertising or marketing ECs or ENDDs are low- or no-risk alternatives to cigarette smoking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Bacteriome Compositions Identified by 16S rRNA Metagenomics in a Randomly Selected “Healthy” Nigerian Male and Female Subjects

Kingsley C. Anukam, I. N. Onwuzor, N. A. Olise, M. Duru, N. R. Agbakoba

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 1-11

Background: There is a dearth of information on the core oral bacteriome compositions of healthy Africans especially Nigerians, mostly due to the non-existence of apt molecular techniques.

Objectives: In this study, we sought to determine the core oral bacteriome compositions of ‘healthy’ Nigerian males and females.

Methods: Oral samples were collected from nineteen adult subjects comprising 11 females and 8 males. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA V4 region amplified using pattern barcoded primers prior to sequencing with the Illumina MiSeq program. Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline was used for 16S rRNA identification. The core genera were defined as taxa present in all subjects and over 2.0% in abundance, while core species defined as taxa found in at least 17/19 samples and over 0.1% in abundance.

Results: Overall, 111 genera and 151 species representing 14 phyla were identified from the 19 subjects. Firmicutes (43.6%) were the most abundant phyla followed by Proteobacteria (33.62%), Bacteroidetes (9.67%), Actinobacteria (8.48%), 

Fusobacteria (4.31%) and others. The most abundant genera were Streptococcus (27.28%) followed by Haemophilus (14.95%), Neisseria (9.67%), Veillonella (7.22%), 

Gemella(5.77%), Rothia (3.11%), Prevotella (3.03%), Porphyromonas (2.94%), 

Lautropia (2.86%), Corynebacterium(2.74%), and Leptotrichia (2.61%). The most abundant core species identified were Haemophilus parainfluenzae (29.31%), followed by Haemophilus influenzae (6.91%), Lautropia sp TeTO (6.82%), Porphyromonas catoniae (6.0%), Streptococcus thermophilus (5.23%), Actinobacillus porcinus (4.80%), Rothia dentocariosa (3.32%), Rothia mucilaginosa (2.95%), Neisseria elongata (2.66%), and Streptococcus gordonii (2.55%).

Conclusions: The genera and species-level core oral bacteriome identified could be used as a reference for comparison with larger population studies.