Open Access Case Report

Multiple Shovel Shaped Appearance of Teeth Associated with Dens Invaginatus: A Case Report

Zaridah Zainal Abidin, Alaa Sabah Hussein, Siti Hajar Hamzah

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 24-30

Introduction: Shovel appearance of a tooth happed as the highlight of the lateral edges that intertwined with a raised cingulum makes a profound lingual fossa. The ridge fades toward the incisal edge and this gives the tooth a 'shovel' or 'scoop' shape.

Case Report: An eight-year-old healthy Malay girl who came for a regular dental check-up at the pediatric dental clinic revealed a shovel appearance of anterior maxillary teeth with various degree upon intra-oral examination. The radiograph showed all teeth exhibit open apex and tooth 12 is associated with the presence of Type I dens invaginatus. Sealing the affected tooth with flowable composite was a good treatment option.

Conclusion: A thorough examination, early diagnosis and proper treatment are important to prevent any dental complication that may be associated with these dental anomalies.

Open Access Case Report

A Case Report on Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Induced by Phenytoin

Suman Bisla, Ambika Gupta, Shubhangi Shukla, Shagun Solanki, Jatin Lonyal

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 31-35

Drugs are known to cause various adverse drug reactions ranging from a skin rash to severe skin reactions like Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a life threatening immune complex mediated hypersensitivity mucocutaneous reaction mainly affecting skin and the mucous membrane, presenting as severe mucosal erosions with widespread erythematous, cutaneous macules or atypical targets. Various drugs are known to cause skin reactions which include antiepileptics, analgesics, antibiotics, and proton-pump inhibitors. Carbamazepine and Phenytoin are among the leading antiepileptic drugs causing drug induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Here we report a case of SJS induced by phenytoin. A 17-year-old male reported with extensive ulceration of the oral cavity and haemorrhagic crustations on the lower lip which occurred 2 days after the intake of phenytoin. He was treated with corticosteroids and oral topical anaesthetics. We all must be careful while prescribing drugs and be aware of the adverse effects of the drugs especially the life threatening one.

Open Access Case Study

Two Cases Diagnosed with Idiopathic Root Resorption and Low Serum Vitamin D Raise New Questions on Aetiology

Inger Kjaer, Georges Rozencweig, Eric Foultier, Maria Lopez Petersen, Niels Tommerup, Mads Bak, Jan Kvetny

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 13-23

Aims: In this report, two cases, A and B, with idiopathic resorptions are presented. In both cases the hypothesis was that the idiopathic resorption processes had a general medical cause, presumably an inborn calcification deficit. The aim was to evaluate this hypothesis.

Presentation of Cases: Case A. Healthy Caucasian male, born 1999, with no anamnestic information on diseases or medications, was treated with orthodontic fixed appliances for agenesis of a mandibular incisor, lack of space in the maxilla for cuspid eruption and bilateral open bite. A sister had minor resorption defects after orthodontic treatment. What is extraordinary in case A, and seemingly not described before, is the aggressive resorption occurring in the retention period and in the 4-year post retention period.

Case B. Caucasian male, born in a pre-term delivery in 2003 with an anamnestic information on late development and ADHD. Case B has never received orthodontic treatment. Both patients underwent a serum test and case A was also offered a genetic test. 

Findings: Cases A and B both had low values of vitamin D. In addition, case B had low value of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Case A was genetically negative for hypophosphasia (HPP).

By retrospection, both cases revealed severe resorption in the primary dentition before onset of orthodontic treatment.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the resorptions observed in the permanent teeth in case A was not a consequence of the orthodontic treatment. It is suggested that case A could have osteomalasia, while case B may have HPP.

Limitations: This study represents a new approach in revealing the aetiology behind severe idiopathic root resorption. Further collaboration with medical specialists is need for improving the indications and the limitations for the serological methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Incidence and Prevalence of Oral Microbial Pathogens Selenomonas noxia and Streptococcus mitis within the UNLV-SDM Clinical Patient Population

Namgu Kim, Melissa Trumbo, Patrick Perkins, Kevin Foote, Beanca Jhanine Samiano, Matthew Marrujo, Karl Kingsley, Katherine M. Howard

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 1-12

Introduction: Selenomonas noxia (SN) is a gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria, which contributes to development and progression of periodontal disease. Some evidence now suggests Streptococcus mitis (SM), a gram-positive, facultative bacterium contributing to the etiology of dental caries and periodontal disease, may also influence the prevalence of SN within subgingival complexes. Based upon the overall lack of prevalence data, the objective of this study was to evaluate presence of SN and SM using qPCR among saliva samples taken from pediatric, adult, and orthodontic dental school clinics.

Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of previously collected saliva samples from an existing biologic repository. Screening for microbial presence of SN and SM was performed in duplicate using quantitative polymerase chain reaction or qPCR.

Results: From the repository containing N=1,176 samples, a total of n=196 samples were identified. Screening for SN revealed significantly higher prevalence among Pediatric Orthodontic samples (28.3%) compared with Adults (5.5%), P=0.001. No significant differences were found between Pediatric non-Orthodontic samples (16.7%) and Adult non-Orthodontic samples (12.5%), P=0.2343. Screening for SM revealed similar prevalence among Adult Orthodontic (27.8%) compared with Pediatric Orthodontic (31.7%) samples, P=0.3912. However, significant differences were observed between Pediatric non-Orthodontic (46.7%) and Adult non-Orthodontic samples (17.5%), P=0.0001.

Conclusions: This study is among the first to evaluate SN and SM co-occurrence among Pediatric and Adult Orthodontic and non-Orthodontic patient samples. The increased prevalence of both SN and SM among Pediatric patients, and Orthodontic samples more specifically, may suggest further research is needed to more fully understand the oral health risks facing these specific patients. The differential results in co-occurrence only observed among the Orthodontic patients may also suggest orthodontic therapy may be sufficient to alter oral behaviors or the oral habitat thereby altering the oral microbial constituents and possibly changing oral health and the risk for developing oral disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Root-crown Ratio of Upper Incisors in a Group of Turkish Adolescent

Bilal Ozmen, Nazlı Basak Ayna, Zeynep Kaya

International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, Page 35-42

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate of the root-crown ratio in upper incisors using panoramic radiographs in a group of Turkish Adolescent.

Study Design: Various measurements were made on panoramic radiographs in the study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Pedodontics between June 11, 2019 and December 11, 2020.

Methodology: In this study, the crown heights and root lengths of the upper incisor teeth were measured in digital panoramic radiographs of 568 Adolescent [284 girls, 284 boys] aged between 13-14 years. No patients with any systemic disease or syndrome, filling or caries in their upper incisor teeth were included. Measurements were made under dim light using Image J program. Crown heights and root lengths were measured using modified Lind's method. One-Way Analysis of Variance and Tukey multiple comparison test were used in the analysis of the data.

Results: No statistical difference was detected between root lengths of the teeth [p=0.13]. Crown heights of central teeth were longer than lateral teeth [p<0.001]. The highest root-crown ratios were determined in lateral teeth [p<0.001]. Similar root-crown ratios were found in symmetrical teeth.

Conclusion: This study may provide convenience to dentists when the root length of teeth in need of root canal treatment cannot be determined by radiographs or in cases where digital root length measuring devices are not available. It can also guide the estimation of crown height and root lengths of upper incisors in Turkish Adolescent.