A Digital Microscopic Evaluation of the Induction of Dentinal Micro-cracks after Canal Preparation with Rotary and Reciprocating NiTi Systems in vitro

Suliman Abdullah Alnujaidi *

Al Yamamah Hospital, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Shibu Thomas Mathew

Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Riyadh Elm University, Saudi Arabia.

Mohammad Al-Omari

Restorative Dentistry Department, Riyadh Elm University, Saudi Arabia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aim of the Study: This study aims to assess the induction of dentinal microcracks by different NiTi systems and to compare rotary and reciprocating systems.

Methodology: Fifty teeth were selected and divided into five groups. Each group was instrumented according to the manufacturer's specifications and was performed by a single operator. The teeth were then sectioned and viewed under a digital microscope. The study aimed to compare the performance of four different instruments.

Results: No cracks were detected in the control group. The Hyflex EDM produced the highest number of cracks in 4mm (70%), and the highest number of cracks in total (43.3%). ProTaper Universal produced the least number of cracks (16.6%). WaveOne and WaveOne Gold both produced cracks (30%).

Conclusion: Within the limitation of this in vitro study, all the instruments produced microcracks. The Hyflex EDM produced higher cracks in the mid-root section. There was no significant difference in the incidence of microcracks between the four systems or between rotary and reciprocating systems.

Keywords: Dentinal microcracks, NiTi systems, reciprocating systems, Hyflex EDM

How to Cite

Alnujaidi , S. A., Mathew , S. T., & Al-Omari , M. (2023). A Digital Microscopic Evaluation of the Induction of Dentinal Micro-cracks after Canal Preparation with Rotary and Reciprocating NiTi Systems in vitro. International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry, 6(2), 124–131. Retrieved from https://journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/167


Schilder H. Cleaning and shaping the root canal. Dent Clin North Am. 1974;18: 269-296.

Hulsmann M. Effects of mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation on root; 2013.

Ingle JI. A standardized endodontic technique utilizing newly designed instruments andfilling materials. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 1961;14:83-91.

Shemesh H, Bier C, Wu MK, Tanomaru‐Filho M, Wesselink P. The effects of canal preparation and filling on the incidence of dentinal defects. International Endodontic Journal. 2009;42: 208-213.

Bier CAS, Shemesh H, Tanomaru-Filho M, Wesselink PR, Wu MK. The ability of different nickel-titanium rotary instruments to induce dentinal damage during canal preparation. Journal of Endodontics. 2009; 35:236-238.

Soares CJ, Pizi ECG, Fonseca RB, Martins LRM. Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests. Brazilian Oral Research. 2005;19:11-16.

Adl A, Sedigh-Shams M, Majd M. The effect of using rc prep during root canal preparation on the incidence of dentinal defects. Journal of Endodontics. 2015;41:376-379.

Burklein S, Tsotsis P, Schäfer E. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation: reciprocating versus rotary instrumentation. Journal of Endodontics. 2013;39:501-504.

Pedulla E, Genovesi F, Rapisarda S, La Rosa GR, Grande NM, Plotino G, Adorno CG. Effects of 6 single-file systems on dentinal crack formation. Journal of Endodontics. 2017;43:456-461.

Kansal R, Rajput A, Talwar S, Roongta R, Verma M. Assessment of dentinal damage during canal preparation using reciprocating and rotary files. Journal of Endodontics. 2014;40:1443-1446.

Versiani A, M, Souza E, De‐Deus G. Critical appraisal of studies on dentinal radicular microcracks in endodontics: Methodological issues, contemporary concepts, and future perspectives. Endodontic Topics. 2015;33:87-156.

Ustun Y, Aslan T, Sagsen B, Kesim B. The effects of different nickel-titanium instruments on dentinal microcrack formations during root canal preparation. European Journal of Dentistry. 2015; 9:41.

Kim HC, Lee MH, Yum J, Versluis A, Lee CJ, Kim BM. Potential relationship between design of nickel-titanium rotary instruments and vertical root fracture. Journal of Endodontics. 2010a;36:1195-1199.